The following scientific work deals with the problem regarding the legality of political criticism and satire. Especially the legal borderline case Böhmermann against Erdogan will be treated. The satire-comedian Jan Böhmermann performed a poem titled “Schmähkritik” in his late-night-show. With this he criticized, on the one hand the political behaviour of the Turkish president and on the other hand, he brought an example for an illegal abusive criticism. The poem is aimed on Recep Erdogan and it contains objectively insulting expressions. Therefore, he decided to file Böhmermann for injunctive relief. Initially the work treats the submitted legal basis out of the German legal order. The problem arises out of the conflict of the general right of personality according to article 1 (1) of the German Basic Law (GG) with the artistic freedom and the freedom of expression according to article 5 (1) and (3) GG. Afterwards the respective legal assessment of the first and the second instance will be presented. Against this background it will be analysed, how the present case would have been assessed according to the Austrian civil law. Especially it will be examined, if the incriminated expressions fulfil the violation of honour, particularly the reputational damage according to § 1330 of the Austrian General Civil Code (ABGB) or violate the human dignity of the complainant according to § 16 ABGB. In the course of a casuistic balancing of interests it will be analysed, if the defendant can justify his expressions by artistic freedom, particularly freedom of expression. Thereby tendencies of the national jurisdiction will be determined, and the critical arguments of the scientific literature will be considered. In conclusion the summary of the valuations and results will be presented.