The aim of this investigation, within the R-Age-II (Recovery, Age and Performance II)-Project, was to examine the differences between morning (M)- and evening (E)-types in cognitive performance (reaction time, hit rate), in cardiovascular activity (heart rate, HR; heart rate variability, HRV) and in subjective states (e.g. mood, pain, the need for recovery) during work and breaks. Different types of breaks were given (activating, e.g. take a walk, have a snack; or relaxing, e.g. listening to music, read something) throughout the examination. Sixty-one employees, 33 female and 28 male, participated in this investigation after their work day was finished. The mean age was 38.5 years (SD = 11.6). Repeated measures analyses of variance (MANOVAs), 2 (testing time: before vs. after a break) x 2 (chronotype: M-type vs. E-type) x 2 (type of break: activating vs. relaxing) showed significant main effects and interactions. All subjects showed a decrease of reaction time and an increase of hit rate after a break. The HR decreased whereas the HRV increased after a break (main effect of testing time). All subjects felt more recovered and less fatigued after a break (main effect of testing time). M-types were less fatigued than E-types after a break (interaction of chronotype x testing time). The mood and the physical state were impaired during the investigation (main effect of testing time). There was no significant difference in the need for recovery in M- and E-types (main effect of chronotype). There was a trend in the interaction of testing time x type of break x chronotype: M-types had lower HR and higher HRV after a relaxing break. They felt more recovered and less fatigued after an activating break. E-types demonstrated better results in cognitive performance and felt more recovered after a relaxing break. They demonstrated lower HR and higher HRV and felt less fatigued after an activating break.