Communication between patients and relatives is one of the most important skills of a nurse. Many conversational situations involving patients require “appropriate” words. Especially oncological care entails a lengthy path from the initial diagnosis to finally coping with the disease, which might result in intensive talks. Much is demanded from nurses and it is therefore of great advantage to be aware which phases oncological patients gradually undergo and which conversational situations thus potentially occur in each phase.Various communication models show how information may be sent and received. Among these are those by Schulz von Thun, Watzlawick and Rogers. Backed by concrete examples, communication models assist in avoiding and reducing mistakes during conversational situations. Furthermore, non-verbal aspects of communication are essential in nursing, since posture, eye contact, facial expression, and gestic, as well as paraverbal aspects contribute significantly to the interaction with patients. Care largely involves direct contact with patients; therefore it is of particular importance to respect distance areas in the daily care routine.Concretely speaking, when working with oncological patients empathy, understanding and a sense of distance is required. Hospital daily routine should be as pleasant as possible despite of therapy and rehabilitation in order to free enough time for informing, instructing and motivating the patient regarding how to cope well with the new situation at home. Relatives of patients have the wish to be included in their care, too, which can be achieved by providing them with enough information, consultation and training. Key words: communication, communication models, competence, communicative competences, patients competence, oncology, information-, instruction-, motivation- and coping conversation.