This thesis illustrates the development of administrative and judicial authorities in Lower Austria and Vienna from 1848 until the present day. After a brief overview of the history of the two federal provinces, the most important authorities will be analysed beginning with the reign of Maria Theresia (1740-1780). As a result of the 1848 revolution, administration and jurisdiction were separated in all instances. At the lowest level, district commissions and county courts were formed. After the functions of both authorities were assumed by mixed district offices in 1854, the December constitution 1867 led to the final separation of the administration and jurisdiction. Municipal district offices were founded instead of district commissions in Vienna in 1890. The development of the authorities in Lower Austria and Vienna was closely linked to Viennas urban expansion. Today, there are 21 district commissions and 24 county courts in Lower Austria. In Vienna, there are now 19 municipal district offices and 12 county courts. The current administrative and judicial organisation is the result of a development that has been influenced by historical events, population growth and a number of reforms. The main part of this thesis deals with the district commissions/municipal district offices and district courts in Lower Austria and Vienna, as well as their relevant legal bases. Territorial changes in the political districts and judicial districts are illustrated by maps.