The healthcare system of a country is one of the essential institutions for the whole population. Debates on the healthcare system and measures for reforms are topics that concern the public the citizens of a country. The number of studies regarding the satisfaction with healthcare systems, as well as the attitude of citizens on the access to healthcare, steadily increased in the last decades. Even the European Union relies on the participation of citizens via surveys and aims for citizen-oriented healthcare systems in their member states. The subject of this work is the investigation of the satisfaction of citizens with the healthcare system and their attitude to the healthcare system in 16 member states of the European Union. Therefore, this work uses the current state of research based on theoretical and empirical studies, and empirically reviews them based on the data of the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) 2011 on Health and Health Care. This work emphasizes three research directions: (i) The influence of individual as well as institutional determinants on the satisfaction of citizens with the healthcare system is investigated. (ii) Additionally, the influence of the healthcare-system-type on the satisfaction of citizens is tested. Therefore, the healthcare systems of the 16 EU states are categorized into a healthcare-system-typology. (iii) As the European Union aims to unify the main ideas and the common moral concepts regarding health (solidarity and equality), the connection between the attitude of citizens to solidarity and equality and the main ideas of the healthcare-system-types is analyzed.