Nowadays the language used by the minority of the population of a country is just as important as the language of the majority. This thesis will pay special attention to the minority groups and how they are protected on a European, national and regional level. This thesis will cover a short historical overview on how multilingual Switzerland was created and also why there are a lot of minority languages in Italy. Following a brief historical background, the “European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages” which is very important in Europe for the protection of those minorities, is explained. The EU supports lots of projects and tries to keep up a multilingual union. The Charter , a law implemented in the EU in 2001 to protect language minorities, was the basis for national laws for many member states of the EU as well as Italy. Because of that the weak minorities are protected by the minority protection act “Legge 482/1999”. In Switzerland, this is determined by a special language law/ regulation and the cantonal constitutions.The observing and realization of those laws in Switzerland and Italy are the tasks of regional authorities, but due to the autonomy of some regions the Italian minority is better protected and receives better support in their daily lives. The linguistic situation will be discussed further since in Switzerland and Italy the Italian language represents the minority and majority respectively depending on the point of view.