The percentage of women in leading positions in Austria is still very low, which leads to a loss of essential competitive advantages for companies and Austria as a location for business. Despite the fact that a lot of advantages could be linked with gender diversity in leadership, a lot of barriers exist, which hinder women to be promoted. Therefore, this master thesis asks the research question of which recommendations for actions could be deduced to increase the share of women in leading positions. In the second chapter the current situation of women connected with leadership will be illustrated basically, focusing on the existence and the effects of role models respectively stereotypes and the illustration of gender-specific differences in leadership motivation, leadership behavior as well as remuneration. The following chapter deals with the reasons for underrepresentation of women in leading positions. First, general attempts are used to explain the glass ceiling effect. As a next step external and internal barriers will be analyzed in detail. Moreover, the importance of gender equality will be demonstrated. The last chapter outlines on the basis of a comparison between countries, that Norway and Finland have already found ways to increase the percentage of women in leading positions. Differences to Austria are highlighted in this context. As a result of these findings, recommendations for action to fight the existing barriers and learning opportunities, using Norway and Finland as role model, will be deduced. To fight all barriers in an efficient way, recommendations for action will be deduced for politics respectively society, for companies and for women themselves.