Over and over again, though in manageable amount, Austrian courts have to deal with § 184 StGB, the charlatanry. This thesis presents the historical background, the present day situation and the medial reception (through the case of Olivia Pilhar) of charlatanry. Furthermore, the thesis analyses the elements of crime of § 184 StGB. Other crimes related to charlatanry also get examined. Furthermore, charlatanism, as an abstract delict against public safety, is investigated. In this context the tasks, that may only be performed by medical professionals also play a role. Subsequently, the history of charlatanry in Germany is being presented. In this section, the argument regarding the drug guideline of 2011 is examined. A comparison between Austrian and German legal positions follows. Another component of this thesis is the legal situation of occupations related with charlatanry, such as non medical healers and miracle healers in Austria and Germany. To accomplish this comparison the European Court case EuGH 11.07.2002, C-294/00 is evaluated. Furthermore, the education and medial reception of non medical and miracle healers get analyzed. The purpose of this thesis is to find out if charlatanry is a danger to our society and if it has to be punished (as it is already the case in Austria) or if a gentler handling of this topic (as it is the case in Germany) should be considered sufficient. The author comes to the conclusion, that, in order to protect the public health a law against charlatanry, such as the Austrian § 184 StGB is required. According to the authors conclusion, Austria is the Pan-European forerunner on protecting the public health safety.