From the historical point of view, the Italian resistance movement during World War II, one of the most extensive and impressive phenomenons of resistance to fascism and Nazi-occupation, is considered to be a significant and legendary event in the Italian history. A lot of dramatic, remarkable and partly peculiar fates both of individuals and groups originated in it.In the first part of the paper key facts and aspects of fascism, Nazi-occupation, the political situation in Italy in those days, the Italian resistance movement and their struggles as fenomeno diffuso are described. A definition of Neorealism, which left its marks on Italian films and literature of the post-war years, completes the historical section.The second part contains the most important biographical data of the authors Renata Viganò, Beppe Fenoglio und Italo Calvino and the directors Roberto Rossellini und Carlo Lizzani, considering the historical timeframe. Additionally, one neorealist work of each of them is critically examined and analyzed. In addition to a comparison of some neorealist books with each other, a critical outline of two films of that genre in order to show the differences and similarities of film and literature is included.On the one hand, coming to terms with experiences of war, human tragedies and both positive and negative blows of fate by means of films and literature was objectively an essential parameter for the neorealist phase. On the other hand, it was, without doubt, of great psychological concern for contemporary witnesses, ex-partisans, numerous Italian families and victims of the Nazi fascist terror. A detailed sociological consideration of the key figures in the books and films will give information on that.