The thermal properties of the surface and subsurface layers of planets and planetary objects yield important information that allows us to better understand the thermal evolution of the body itself and the interactions of this body with its environment. Various planetary bodies of our Solar System are covered by so-called regolith, a granularand porous material. On such planetary bodies, like the Moon or Mars the dominant heat transfer mechanism is heat conduction. In this case the energy balance is mainly controlled by the effective thermal conductivity of the top surface layers, that can be directly measured by thermal conductivity probes. The single-probe method is traditionallyused to measure the thermal conductivity. However, the heat capacity can yield more information about the thermal properties of a body. Therefore the dual-probe method is used whose strength lies in facilitating the measurement of both thermal quantities with good accuracy. Typical dual-probes consist of two parallel needles, a heater and a temperature sensor.The aim of this work is twofold. Since ruggedized probes have a non-ideal geometry a calibration of the probes is indispensable. So, as a first step, each needle of the dualprobe was calibrated with an off-the-shelf reference sensor. In the second step these calibrated needle probes were used in a dual-probe configuration in the following way. Measurements with heat pulse durations from 10 s to 30 s in different samples were performed and compared to the results of a infinite element model. In this model the thermal resistance at the boundaries between core and sheath of the probe and between sheath and sample were varied to find the best fit to the measured data. In addition to an improved accuracy of thermal conductivity and heat capacity measurements, the results of this thesis form the basis for further investigations on the effects of contact resistances, heat drain through wires and arrangements of multi-needle probes.