Since the end of the 19th century, the anti-utopia that deals with and continues the tendencies of reality has already been an essential part of the Russian literary history. Because of its critical approach in times of the Soviet era, the anti-utopia had been a genre of dissidents. However, it was also in the ascendant at times of the glasnost as well as around the turn of the millennium. Additionally, an intense discussion about the freedom of opinion in Russia aroused at the beginning of the 21st century and the anti-utopia advanced to a stepping stone of intellectual enlightenment about the future. The main focus of this thesis is put on the discussion of four different works of the contemporary Russian literature: Vladimir Vojnovičs "Moskva 2042", Vladimir Sorokins "Den' Opričnika" as well as "Sacharnyj Kreml'" and Ol'ga Slavnikovas "2017", and the question if these works are consistent with the classical anti-utopias or the ways in which they differ.In the first part of the thesis, the definitions of the literary positive utopia as well as of the anti-utopia are given and the development of relevant authors and their works, especially in Russia, is portrayed. What follows is the theory of the most important formal and contentual structural features, such as “isolation”, “selection” and “ideality” according to Schulte Herbrüggen, the figure of the outsider (according to Weber) as well as the satire as one of the inherent attribute of genus of the anti-utopia. The practical part of the thesis focuses on the examination of selected works. The formal as well as contentual aspects of the utopia/anti-utopia are illustrated within, and it will be displayed how these elements are applied in different ways. As a result of this thesis, all of the four works contain elements of the anti-utopia, however, the elements are dealt with in diverse ways and none can be considered as genuinely anti-utopian.