This thesis deals with the significance of the gender category in the practice of ballroom dancing. Ballroom dances, which include standard and Latin American dances, structurally correspond to the concept of a two-gender system, which still prevails in our society, and exhibit a hierarchical gender order with a male dominance in their traditionally conveyed form. As couple dances, their cultural-historical development is discussed in this thesis. Based on participating observation and guideline-based interviews with dancers, the construction of gender in this sphere was investigated in an empirical research. The subject matter was theoretically embedded in women?s and gender studies, which have also been part of folkloristic research interest since the 1980s, with the major lines of dance research discourse being traced as well. This theoretical framework permitted a dialogue between empiricism and theory in the analysis. The analysis of the empirical data resulted in a division into categories, which depicted the most important subject areas such as dance motivation, physicality and gender as well as the dancers? culture, and which was discussed along the interviewed persons? gender-specific patterns of perception and interpretation. At a superordinate level of analysis, a strong entanglement of the ballroom dancing practice with the dancers? identities and lifestyles was observed.