This Master Thesis considers and contrasts health promotion efforts in schools in Austria and Peru (Iquitos). The theoretical part generally describes actions of educational health promotion and basic terms in the school setting. Based on the description of historical development, structures and networks, programs of health promotion and empirical data are presented. Thereby, the differences and accordingly the similarities of the two countries are explained, as well as current intentions and proceedings of the ministries of health and education as well as health-promotion-networks of both countries. The empirical part consists of a questionnaire-based survey study assessing health behaviour and health-related variables from pupils aged 11 to 15 years in three schools in Peru. In order to interpret the results correctly, the surrounding of the students of Iquitos is described in detail. Differences between age and sex groups with regard to the categories health, health attitude, risk attitude, satisfaction concerning the school, class climate, requirements, impositions, and the overall impression of the school class are computed. The results are compared to the Austrian results of the HBSC study of 2006. Implications are derived for additional and respectively intensified actions of health promotion in different fields.