In many cases educational actions are taken to tackle social problems. This strategy is also pursued in the context of environmental protection but, as research findings a well as ongoing environmental damage clearly show, it has only had limited effectiveness so far. This master thesis is aimed at analysing this phenomenon and, along with it, the development of the Austrian as well as global environmental actions, the discrepancy between environmental awareness and behaviour and adult education in this context. The theoretical part will be supplemented by the expertise of Christian Salmhofer, Manuela Lanzinger, Regina Steiner, Helga Kromp-Kolb, Claudia Rusch and Peter Iwaniewicz. Research has shown that regarding environmental behaviour, various further of actions are required in addition to adult education. Particularly, the presence of inevitable basic structural requirements seems to play a decisive role in this respect. With regard to adult education, it can be stated that environmental education of adults has been widely neglected so far and that modification and extension thereof are necessary due to shifting challenges as well as the aspect of lifelong learning. Additionally, it could be found out that adult education, which includes new media, provides specific knowledge as well as general education, considers participatory settings, integrates emotions into the learning process, in which the meaning of experiential learning is well understood, that is itself role model and works with role models, one that grasps the impact of outdoor experiences, that shows the learners alternative lifestyles, is full of idealism and offers visions will be most likely to lead to positive, successful changes in behaviour.