Abstract This work provides a critical analysis of physicalist theories of the mental and their naturalistic implications. Central to this is the study of causation theories which are to explain the causal relationships between mind and body. Chapter 1 and 2 set out the framework in which the central concepts of the study are introduced: ontology - causality - methodology - explanation of consciousness. In chapters 3 to 5, a physicalist explanation of consciousness as well as all of the necessary requirements and consequences resulting from the example of Jaegwon Kim's "minimal" physicalism will be presented. Those questions that arise on concepts of causality and a correlated methodology will be discussed in chapters 6 and 7. The commitment to an exclusively materialistic view can lead to extreme positions, as should be clear, for instance, with a view to neuroconstructivism. This theory triggers, again, criticism of naturalistic tendencies in the explanation of consciousness and personality. At the same time it points to new philosophical approaches beyond materialistic theories (chapters 8 and 9).