The price of food has always been in change due to fluctuations of supply and demand. During the latest price spikes on the agricultural commodity futures markets, suspicions were made that besides crop failures and partial export restrictions, a new kind of speculation was to blame for rising prices. The aim of this thesis is to find a connection between index speculation and the price of agricultural products. Therefore the paper first gives an overview of the topic and explains the most important terms. Afterwards markets for corn, soybeans and wheat are examined for their characteristics. Furthermore the most important exchanges for agricultural products and the various market participants are presented. The next part discusses options to invest in the asset class of commodities and their income sources. In addition, the most important attributes of agricultural indices are described, based on examples and an overview of the data regarding index investments is given. The last part of the thesis presents the real impacts of index speculation based on the current state of scientific research followed by self-performed studies using the Granger causality test. Those studies showed, in contrast to studies of other authors, no impact of index speculation on the considered prices of food. Due to the divergency of the results with the results shown in the scientific literature no final opinion can be formed. In fact, further research is necessary.