The beliefs about the afterlife and the perspectives of hope of non-Christian Greek epitaphs (4th century BC?3rd century AD) in the Mediterranean region are witnesses of diversity of religious thinking about the post-mortal world. Body and soul are thought of as two entities, the worldly life is stylised as wearisome and all hope ? if mentioned at all ? deferred until the afterlife. Thence, it is understandable that the idea of resurrection must have seemed disconcerting to the Greeks of Antiquity. Despite all odds, Christianity spread into that world with its message of Jesus and the resurrection. Luke?s two-volume masterpiece (Gospel of Luke and Book of Acts) specifically addresses the gentile Christians, or Christians with religious roots originating from the same world as the analysed epitaphs. The present thesis tries to cast light on the links and differences between the two horizons of thought, as well as on why it was a challenge for the Greeks of Antiquity to believe in resurrection, and what was considered special with regard to the resurrection of Jesus by the Hellenic society at the time. For this purpose, the first part of the present thesis examines antique epitaphs, while the second part focuses on the analysis of Chapter 24 (Luke), and St. Paul?s speech in the Areopagus in Athens (Acts 17:19?34). Finally, the third chapter draws conclusions based on the analyses.