Deviations concerning emotional dispositions and neuronal structures which play an active part in the origin and regulation of emotions have already been shown in previous studies on borderline personality disorder (BPD). The aim of this study was to find out about the associations between emotional dispositions regarding anxiety, anger and disgust and the volume of grey matter in emotionally relevant areas of the brain in patients suffering from BPD compared to those of a healthy control group. Moreover, it was tested if differences in the volume of these areas as well as differences in the emotional dispositions between BPD patients and the control group can be shown. For this purpose, 14 BPD patients and 16 healthy women were tested using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Afterwards they rated their degree of anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, trait?anger, expression of anger, disgust propensity, disgust sensitivity as well as self?disgust in a questionnaire. The data was analysed using voxel-based morphometry which showed a reduced volume of grey matter in the right posterior insula in patients suffering from BPD. Moreover, the correlations between various emotional dispositions and certain volumes of grey matter differedamong the groups. Regarding the severity of symptoms, a negative correlation with the volume of grey matter in the hippocampus occurred in patients with BPD. Additionally, the degree of emotional dispositions of anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, suppression of anger, anger reaction, disgust sensitivity and self?disgust was more severe in female BPD patients. This study has confirmed several empirical findings on the greater severity of various emotional dispositions. Moreover, it has produced new results on the volume reduction of the insula in patients suffering from BPD and has shown certain correlations of several emotional dispositions with the volume of grey matter indifferent structures.