In this work, a legal comparison between the electoral law systems of Mexico and Austria is provided. Emphasis is put on the technical elements, i.e., the size of constituency, the forms of candidacy and the rules for transferring votes into seats. By analyzing these technical elements, the two electoral systems are assigned to the two basic types of electoral systems, the majority representation and the proportional representation system. Subsequently, their effects on the party systems are discussed. After a historical overview of the evolution of the electoral and party systems, the current composition of the parliaments is depicted. Then it is shown that in contrast to the proportionality of the Austrian electoral system, the Mexican electoral system promotes the creation of a majority. Finally, the designs of the electoral administration are described and the tasks of the Electoral Court and the Supreme Court in Mexico and the Austrian Constitutional Court are compared.