The aim of this thesis ?On the way to Sustainable Mobility: Public Transportation in the Biosphere Reserve "Salzburger Lungau / Kärntner Nockberge" is firstly, to analyze the actual system of public transportation in the Biosphere Reserve, secondly, the creation of a demanded future system and thirdly, to discuss via Backcasting, which measures must be taken now to realize that vision. Using the theoretical background of the sociological action theory in its social geographic shape, the concept of the Biosphere Reserve as well as the idea of sustainable mobility is discussed theoretically. Empirical data is generated by using qualitative and quantitative methods. Qualitative expert interviews are conducted in the fields of regional management and regional planning, traffic planning and mobility planning, as well as transportation companies. By using a standardized questionnaire, a quantitative household survey in an isolated valley of the region is carried out following the aim to empirically investigate the mobility behavior of the people. Based on these results a stakeholder as well as a SWOT ? Analyses are undertaken in the next steps. Finally, all foregone results are used in the Backcasting process. The results of this thesis illustrate, that sustainable mobility in the sense of meeting demands, cannot be reached unless the actual system is revised and befalls a reorientation. Demand-oriented Mikro ? public transportation systems that are implemented via bottom-up approaches could be a key-measure. Moreover, the implementation of a mobility centre is seen as the most important measure on the way to sustainable mobility. Furthermore, it is concluded, that sustainable mobility is an interdisciplinary research field calling for diverse approaches and methods. Finally, sustainable mobility neither will nor can be successful if there is no participation of the local community and people.