In Austria, shallow pore aquifers supply a significant amount of drinking water, but they are also located in regions of intensive agriculture. Therefore, this dual use has to be harmonized for a sustainable long-term coexistence.Assessing the influence of agriculture on regional groundwater conditions requires a combined approach including field measurements and model simulations. For this purpose, lysimeter measurements were performed at the test site Wagna showing that nitrogen leaching does not threaten groundwater, if beneficial management practices like organic or conventional, low nitrogen input farming are followed. Simulation results for the entire aquifer Westliches Leibnitzer Feld indicate that nitrogen input into the groundwater is strongly dominated by agriculture. Furthermore, it is found that groundwater nitrate concentrations near infiltrating surface waters are generally low, even in the presence of strong agricultural activity. In terms of a sustainable coexistence of agriculture and drinking water resources in the long-run, climate change projections are combined with hydrologic models. It is shown that generally accepted climate projections do not have a significant influence on improving or worsening nitrate pollution within the aquifer Westliches Leibnitzer Feld. In turn, most important for groundwater protecting agricultural management are appropriate nitrogen fertilization rates dependent on soil conditions and the uptake capability of crops. Cultivation of conventional maize results to be most profitable and yet environmentally sustainable when applying 145 kg/ha/a for locations on the lower terrace. Moreover, it is found that the economic profit of organic farming for such locations is higher than for conventional farming.Overall, it can be stated that a sustainable coexistence of agriculture and drinking water supply from shallow pore aquifers in Austria is possible, if adequate, crop specific nitrogen fertilization rates are applied.