The thesis entitled "The efficiency of the judiciary in Bosnia and Herzegovina in comparison with Austria" examines the similarities and differences of the court system in Austria and Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) in relation to its impartiality and independence, efficiency, professionalism and responsibility. Since the end of the war BiH is involved in the process of EU integration. Although the war ended more than 10 years ago, very little progress has been achieved in this country. One of the main objectives is a successful reform of the judiciary. The judicial system in BiH is very complex and the direct result of the constitution, which was defined by the Dayton peace agreement. The present organization consists of four different legal systems that have almost no harmonization with one another. This organizational legal basis additionally complicates the implementation of urgently needed reforms of the judiciary. In contrast, the Austrian constitution establishes a clear organizational legal basis, thus enabling a highly efficient judiciary.