The work deals with the effects of a bark beetle damage in the Upper Austrian Alps of the valleys Enns and Steyr, and what impact climate change could have on the development of bark beetles. First, a landscape ecological overview is given, which deals with the local climate, the geomorphological conditions, geology and soil conditions in the study area. Particular emphasis is placed on the predominant forest composition in the studied area. Then, a description of the bark beetle and the different perspectives on this issue is given. In addition, environmental changes are investigated, which can promote a proliferation of bark beetles. Such environmental changes can be the use of the forest by humans, changing climate effects and weather effects, other biotic factors, ambient air pollution or a lack of nutrients of the trees. In the sixth chapter then turns everything about climate change, which take the development of extreme weather events, such as the spruce responded to him and what silvicultural strategies can be taken in the light of climate change. The last chapter deals with the damage of the bark beetle in the study area and what measures can be taken against him. Specifically, the area of the National Park Kalkalpen is examined by using a visual interpretation of aerial photographs, because in this area no forestry measures are taken and so this forest wilderness area represents an interesting research area in the bark beetle problem. So it was trying to approach on many levels to this issue. It has been shown that climate change will have a great influence on the bark beetle and big changes are already visible. Bark beetle damage is possible until to the tree line and the forestry industry is already responding to it. The complexity of natural processes in forest ecosystems is a major challenge in the science and forestry industry, because the effects and interactions are in a very high number and range from the micro to the macro level.