Mediation, a way to resolve disputes peacefully outside the courtroom, is becoming more relevant lately. One reason is that this form of alternative dispute resolution is relieving the courts of work. Another reason is that people and economic participants are obtaining an easier access to the law. The objective of this thesis is to give a brief overview over the regulations governing mediation in the EU, Austria and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and to compare them to each other. In 2008, the European legislators enacted for the first time mandatory provisions with the Directive of the European Parliament and the Council (2008/56/EG) which govern certain aspects of mediation in civil and commercial law matters. The Directive had to be implemented through national legislations by June 21, 2011.The Civil Mediation Act became effective in Austria in 2004. In the course of implementation of the European Mediation Directive, in 2011, Austria enacted the EU-Mediation Act, with the purpose to further foster mediation. In BiH, the Mediation Procedure Act became effective in 2004. In the same year, the first pilot project started in BiH at the District Court Banjaluka. Mediation has been used in BiH since 2007, but it has to be noted that there is still room for improvements. It is necessary to define models of development of mediation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The comparison of the three judicial systems shows, overall, that they are pursuing the same development. The major distinctions are with regard to enforceability of mediation agreements and suspension of time limitations during mediation.