Due to the high number of breast and prostate cancer cases, as well as the possibly fatal consequences, the question arises whether a mammography- or PSA-test-screening of the population can improve the overall health level.In investigating whether a screening is ethically acceptable, the aspects of nonmaleficence, beneficence, respect for autonomy and justice are discussed. The principle of respect for autonomy leads to the need to demand an informed consent for the patient. The principles of nonmaleficence and beneficence are analyzed by means of an utilitarian tool - the utility calculation. The question of justice can thereby be clarified only when the potential benefits of a screening outweigh the possible damage. If that is the case, the screening shouldn't incur any costs to the participants, in order for financially weaker persons to be able to participate as well.It is shown that a mammography screening, based on the correspondent EU directives, is ethically acceptable according to present knowledge. Because of higher quality standards, there is hope that future mammography examination results will be more secure than they are with opportunistic mammography. Furthermore, this serves to standardize information, which promotes well-informed decisions on account of potential screening participants. The mode in which information about mammography is presented should also be based on the EU directives, as these aim at providing comprehensive, patient-centered information.Introducing the PSA-test as a screening is to be rejected from the ethical point of view, as the risks of harm outweigh the potential benefits. Nevertheless, the cost of this early detection method should be borne by community, as it still carries the potential for saving a life in individual cases. Of course, informed consent is absolutely necessary here as well. Finally, active surveillance and watchful waiting should be further promoted for the potential of a better outcome in the future.