According to conventional labour market models, wage differentials between alleged homogeneous employees are due to multitudinous forms of remunermation, such as education, work experience, working conditions, bairgaining power, as well as short-run supply and demand shifts. The majority of these theoretical concepts is based on the opinion/understanding that human beings act selfishly and rationally, in order to solely maximize their own material welfare, i.e. ?pure money maximizers?.Following neoclassical thinking, individual utility functions are dependent on material welfare only. Social patterns of behavior, as well as societal norms have not been included in these considerations, although they constitute essential components of daily life. Critics claim that such determinants should indeed be included in economic modeling, since individual utility functions can be (positively and negatively) dependent on other utility levels as well. In labour market modeling In a labour economical context, the involvement of societal preferences needs to take into account also possible patterns of behaviour, such as friendship, resentment, fairness etc., to such an extent as they can contribute to wage arbitrages. Several studies of different research methods, i.e. experimental economy, surveys, and econometrics, reveal that social behaviour patterns are possible factors in regard to wage differentials, even though conventional reasons might still be valid as well. There are several economic policy recommendations derived from these findings, which basically all aim at the adjustment of wages, and thereby try to maximize macroeconomic welfare.