This thesis examines how the social dimensions of environmental issues are adapted into contemporary Canadian novels by investigating how authors present environmental issues and which ideologies they deem responsible for the exploitation of nature. The works selected for this discussion are Never Cry Wolf by Farley Mowat, Green Grass Running Water by Thomas King and Oryx and Crake by Margaret Atwood. At the beginning, the parallels between the literary and environmental history of Canada are briefly introduced. In the subsequent discussion of Never Cry Wolf special foci lie on the depiction of wolves and the different types of discourses surrounding them, as well as on the image of the Canadian North as an unspoiled wilderness. In the chapter on Green Grass Running Water hydroelectric megaprojects and their negative effects on people and the environment are presented. Ecological and cultural imperialism towards nature and Native peoples and the stereotype of the 'ecological Indian' receive special attention, as they provide clues as to how Western dominance over both nature and Natives is justified. In the chapter on Margaret Atwood's Oryx and Crake, in addition to the above topics, a special focus was on the question of how environmental issues are related with questions of gender, as the conflation of the natural world and notions of femininity contributes to its suppression. In addition to this emphasis on ecofeminism, the concept of ecocentrism and its significance for an ecocritical reading of Oryx and Crake are discussed. This thesis shows that power relations play an important role in creating environmental issues and that, in order to solve these issues, society needs to shift its priorities from material to ethical objectives. Literature and literary critique play an important role in this process because they provide insights that no other discipline can offer.