The current study investigated implicit and explicit attitudes towards the ex-partner. According to the two-process model from Strack and Deutsch (2004), that postulates the existence of different implicit and explicit processes, it was assumed that implicit (unconscious) attitudes are more resistant to changes, compared to explicit (conscious) attitudes. Because of this, implicit attitudes should need more time to change. It was further postulated that, explicit attitudes towards the ex-partner would change quickly, after a relationship break-up, as a form of self-protection, whereas implicit attitudes would remain positive for a longer time. This effect should be found even in the presence of a new partner, depending on the time since break-up. It was also postulated that implicit and explicit attitudes towards the ex-partner would change as a function of activation (priming) of specific relationship schemas (ex-partner,partner,neutral). The influence of relationship-relevant variables on the effect of different kinds of schema activation was measured, too. 90 women were tested, who already had found a new partner. The distribution to one of the three priming groups was randomly. Implicit attitudes were measured with the ?single category implicit association test? (SC-IAT) on the computer. Women showed more positive implicit attitudes, compared to explicit attitudes concerning the ex-partner, after a short time of break-up. After a longer time of break-up, this effect was changed the other way round. After activating the ex-partner schema, women judged their ex-partner more negative explicitly, compared to the activation of a partner schema. This is only valid for women with a good relationship. Women with a low relationship satisfaction and a longer relationship duration showed negative implicit attitudes toward the ex-partner, compared to women with higher relationship satisfaction and shorter relationship duration. This was shown only in the neutral condition.