Throughout its history, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) has stood as a multinational, multicultural and multireligious country in the center of various conflicts as well as confrontations between different political and religious interests and ideas. In 1991, BiH reached the level of a moderately developed, industrialized country. However, the Civil War (1992-1995) destroyed the country completely, and thus has left direct traces on the demographic picture of the country.Due to this, the aim of this thesis was to give a detailed overview of the demographic changes in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period from 1945 to 2010. In particular, the statistical data of Bosnia and Herzegovina were studied in macro- and micro-economic context in order to find explanations for trends and developments that have occurred in the country. Moreover, both the socio-economic theory and its representative, Harvey Leibenstein, were discussed in more detail. Specifically, with this theory it should be reviewed if there is a relationship between population and economy, as well as between per capita income and fertility. Ultimately, the economic structure has been considered in order to investigate the economic development in Bosnia after the signing of the Dayton Peace Agreement.Since the last census was carried out in 1991, it has been extremely difficult to explore the population growth rate in BiH. The demographic indicators of the country show that Bosnia and Herzegovina, like other European countries, is confronted with the problems of an aging society, a low birth rate and an increasing life expectancy. In the main, a complete, credible as well as gapless representation of the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina will be possible to obtain only after the census has been taken.