To get an understanding of the present structures of the Cuban education system it is important to consider the political, economical and ideological parameters during the twentieth century. Until the Revolution in the 1950s, Cuba was shaped over centuries by the Spanish colonial rule and the resulting dependency from the USA. However, with the increasing acquisition of socialistic ideas in the 1960s this came to an end. With regard to educational policy, José MARTÍ played an important role because he required free access to all education institutions for all Cubans which then became enshrined in the constitution. Consequently, prerevolutionary structures were broken up and huge social programs were initiated. With numerous reforms as for instance the literacy campaign, Fidel CASTRO and Ernesto CHÉ GUEVARA set the course for an extraordinary development of the education system of Cuba. A new generation of people was intended to be created through a transformation of the society. Hence, the Marxist-Leninist ideology was embedded in the thoughts of the Cubans in the seventies which had a great effect on the developments within the Cuban education system. Subsequently, the Cuban education system evolved into the best in Latin America. Nevertheless, after the fall of the iron curtain, involving the disappearance of the eastern bloc countries which were important trade partners as well as the still existing US trade embargo led from 1990 on to a massive crisis with momentous consequences. At the moment, the Cuban government has to face among other challenges a lack of trained teachers as well as a lack of adequate teaching materials. Whether there is a disruption of the economic and social relations between Cuba and Venezuela after the recently deceased Hugo CHÁVEZ or not remains to be seen. The consequences of a disruption would beyond doubt be disastrous also for the Cuban education system.