Ever since humans everyday life is getting increasingly hectic and stressful, the interest in meditation and mindfulness practices is constantly growing. There was a time when practicing meditation was critically judged as spiritual hocus-pocus, but nowadays mindfulness-based interventions have become essential in a variety of different application contexts. The purpose of this study is twofold. First, to shed light on the original core and deeper meanings of meditation in its specific contexts and secondly, to investigate its physiological and psychological effects on human beings.Starting by addressing the linguistic roots of the word mediation as well as a number of different approaches regarding the topic, this thesis proceeds to discuss its status in the Buddhist tradition and the Western society. Furthermore, based on a variety of different scientific studies and investigations regarding meditation and health the effects on the human body and mind will be explained.The findings of this thesis demonstrate the positive effects of meditation and mindfulness-based interventions on the human body and mind. Today, different types of meditative practices are found in Western societies and most of the interventions have its roots in Eastern traditions and their philosophies. The findings presented in the last part of the work show that meditative practices have positive effects on specific health parameters such as heart frequency, blood pressure, stress, immune system, pain, as well as anxiety and depressive disorders. Even though meditation seems to have a variety of positive effects for humans it is important to understand that various types of meditation produce different outcomes regarding their effects on the human body and mind. Further, a thorough distinction of meditation types and their specific consequences are important for a well-directed application in the prevailing context.