The present paper deals with the construction of the ?other?in the audio-visual medium film in the german-speaking area of the 1930s.The thesis starts with an examination of the theories of the construction of the ?other?. The subsequent chapter deals with the different forms of representation of the ?other?; from ethnological museums over ?Völkerschauen (peoples shows)? to ethnographic photography.In the succeeding chapter the medium movie and especially the ethnographic documentary film is examined in a media-theoretic and ?historic context.The main part of this paper deals with an analysis of the film ?Rätsel der Urwaldhölle? from 1938 which goes back to a 17-month-expedition to the amazonas-jari-region from a german research team around its leader Otto Schulz-Kampfhenkel. Firstly, this project is examined concerning its participants, financing, goals and results. Subsequently, an analysis of the film concerning the construction of the ?other? can be found.Herein, astonishing continuities regarding the representation of the ?other? in ethnographic films from the beginning of the 1900s to the year of release of the movie are visible. The members of the expedition construct different levels of the ?other?.Besides the contrasting juxtaposition between civilisation and chaos, a differentiation between ?Mischlinge? (mixed-blood) and ?Eingeborene? (natives) is made. Conclusively, the same-titled expedition report is compared to the film regarding analogies and differences.Another focus of the thesis is placed on a possible national-socialistic background of the project concerning national-socialistic motives, because in recent years some popular sources stated a high connection between this project and National Socialism. After an extensive examination of the film as well as the book, no unambiguous proof of such a big correlation can be found.