Hollow fiber membranes are one of the most promising future technologies in the purification of aqueous media, such as beer, wine, and water. This work is focused on the surface modification of hollow fiber membranes at the nanoscale. Nanostructuring allows introducing specific, novel functionalities to the membrane surface. These functionalities improve the membrane performance, and broaden the membranes applicability. The aim of this project was for designing functional polysaccharide nanostructures at the surface of cellulose acetate hollow fiber membranes. The applied nanostructures improve the membrane fouling properties and permeability. Moreover, active biopolymeric components were integrated into membrane surface, allowing the efficient removal of organic pollutants, such as endocrine disrupting compounds, from water. The work includes the design of highly functional polysaccharide composite nanoparticles, the adsorption of polysaccharides onto inert hollow fiber materials, the development of tailored designable polysaccharide multilayer coatings, the analysis of bacteria - surface interactions, the degradation of endocrine disrupting compounds using recombinant horseradish peroxidase isoenzymes, and the development of efficient methods for immobilizing active enzymes onto hollow fiber membrane surfaces. All developed process can be attributed as “green”, since all materials used are renewable and biodegradable, no hazardous chemicals are used, and all steps are conducted from aqueous solutions at room temperatures.