This thesis deals with the person and the veneration of Mary, the mother of Jesus. Both, the picture of Mary and her veneration are based on the New Testament, especially on the four canonical gospels, which present Mary as the Virgin, and the Mother of Jesus. The thesis does not only present the contents of the biblical sources, but also their discussion by means of the historical-critical method. In addition to this the thesis traces the development of the doctrine and the veneration of Mary in the centuries after the New Testament times and presents their expression in the doctrinal statements. It critically discusses kinds of misinterpretation of the doctrine and mythological explanations. In the end the thesis presents the statements of the Second Vatican Council, which affirms the Divine Motherhood of Mary and therefore the fundament of the veneration of Mary. In 1974 Pope Paul VI. in his Apostolic Exhortation Marialis cultus refers to the Second Vatican Council and pleads for a renewal and strengthening of the veneration of Mary the virgin and Divine Mother. Her devotion can be integrated harmoniously in the veneration and worship of Christ, who undoubtedly is in the focus of Christian veneration. In this context the Pope emphasizes two prayers, the Angelus and the Rosary.