This thesis deals with roman adoption in its appearance as adoptio and adrogatio and furthermore with the role played by women as both adopting and adopted persons. Especially for adoption by and of women, the temporal focus is on the late Republic and the Roman Imperial Era until Justinan. The thesis is divided into four chapters. The first section addresses selected areas of roman families. After defining the terms familia, agnation and cognation, the pater familias sovereignty and the status of women in the family are shown. The following chapter contains some motives for adoption in roman antiquity. Then, the two types of adoption are defined and analysed considering their requirements, their proceedings, their effects and their alterations. After this general presentation, the last two sections inform about both adopted and adopting women. Adopted and adrogated women are treated at first. There was no difference between the adoptio of a man and that of a woman, whereas from the 2nd century BC until the imposition of the adrogatio per rescriptum principis, the adrogatio of women was only possible in exceptional cases with the permission of the emperor. The last chapter covers adoption by women. Women were not allowed to adopt for a long time, because they could not have the patria potestas over their own children. However, there have been rare cases of adoptions by women since the early Roman Imperial Era.