This thesis deals with interpreting in the context of mediation in penal matters (Tatausgleich, in short TA). Mediation in penal matters is a service of NEUSTART, the (Austrian) Association for probation services and social work. The objective of a TA, which is initiated on behalf of the Public Prosecutor or the Courts and replaces criminal proceedings in court, is to reach conciliation between the victim and the defendant through neutral mediation. The parties involved are given the opportunity to discuss relevant issues which usually comprise questions of compensation and their future relationship. If one of the participating parties does not know any German, interpreters are to be provided during the mediation. The existence of this field has, however, been ignored widely by translation and interpreting studies to date. The aim of this thesis is therefore to gather first data on the current situation in the field and to use this information to locate the TA within the broad area of interpreting studies. Based on the assumption that the TA is either part of Community Interpreting or of Court Interpreting, these two interpreting types will be analysed first. In the further course of the thesis, the association NEUSTART, the Tatausgleich itself and its legal regulations will be discussed. These theoretical considerations form the starting point for the present study which will enter uncharted territory by collecting qualitative data through interviews with six interpreters and NEUSTART mediators. The results of the research will provide information on the characteristics of the field, the interpreting situation, the cooperation and relationship between interpreters and mediators (and parties) as well as on the thoughts, feelings and perceptions of the people interrogated.