With an estimated population of ten to twelve million, Roma people are the biggest ethnic minority in Europe. Since the 15th century, they have been victims of segregation and discrimination; have been assimilated, haunted, banished or killed. Today, Antiziganism is still widely spread. In addition to the daily discriminations against Roma based on stereotypes, prejudice and stigmatization, they are very often affected by poverty. This means that they constitute not only an ethnic, but also a social minority. The minority protection system alone is thus not sufficient for improving their situation. The EU has been dealing with Roma issues especially since the Eastern enlargement process. Although minority protection is part of the Copenhagen Criteria, the EU failed to make the Roma integration a condition sine qua non for accession. Moreover, the EU does not dispose of the necessary competences to pass rules of law for the improvement of the situation of the Roma which the member states are legally obliged to implement. That?s why the EU is limited to the development of political strategies, e.g. financial instruments, the foundation of or participation in European forums and the EU Framework for National Roma Strategies which stipulates minimum standards for national approaches in Roma issues. Due to the lack of binding force, it is the member states? task to implement these measures. Austria and the Slovak Republic were used as examples for this analysis. Except for the antidiscrimination rules, the two countries have chosen different implementation approaches. In Austria, a strategic alignment is missing as there are only status quo descriptions available. Considered as an ordinary minority, the Roma are not provided with special protection. In Slovakia, however, where the problems of Roma are more apparent, not the strategies are lacking, but their implementation in practice. The deficient will on the local level constitutes the biggest obstacle in this regard.