Transylvania had always been a crossroad for different cultures and was subjected to many foreign political and cultural influences. In the Middle Ages it formed part of the Kingdom of Hungary, in the early modern times of the Ottoman Empire, later on of the Habsburg Empire.The Romanian population in Transylvania belonged already to the Eastern Orthodox Church when the Romanians gained a national identity. In the middle ages in Transylvania the ethnic groups of Romanians, Hungarians, Szeklers and Saxons were already settled. Since the early modern times the Romanians retained their orthodox religion, while the others where Roman Catholic, Protestant or Unitarian. In the case of the Romanians Orthodox, faith and national identity were closely tied together. For the Romanian Orthodox the church calendar regulated both the working life and the time of celebration (holidays), the whole life, in its economic, cultural and religious aspects according to the mythical frame given by the calendar and the religious traditions regulated by it. When in the time of enlightenment the Austrian government tried to make the life of the population more efficient in terms of economic output, it opted to change the calendar, reducing the number of holidays in order to gain more time for work and so to increase the productivity. Although the Austrian government under emperor Joseph II gained the support of both the Orthodox and the Uniate prelates for the calendar reform, its success was only partial, because it had to be enacted by the local clergy, which was often reluctant to enact the reforms, continuing to celebrate the old holidays abolished by the government. So the long term success of the reforms concerning the calendar was only partial and the Romanian people in Transylvania managed despite heavy pressure to conform to the needs of the modern time, to preserve its national, religious and cultural identity.