The current study investigates the effects of playing a musical instrument on cognitive abilities, like intelligence, attention, and creativity. Additionally children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD(H)D) were explored in terms of their skills in these achievements. The sample consisted of 76 students from Germany who attended second and third grade. The sample was divided into three subgroups: (a) children without academic difficulties playing a musical instrument (N= 28), (b) children without academic difficulties, not playing a musical instrument (N= 34) and (c) children with AD(H)D, not playing a musical instrument (N= 14). There was no evidence for differences in socioeconomic status or intelligence between the three groups. Results of creative performance indicated that the three groups differed in originality and flexibility, with a tendency of the AD(H)D group to score higher than the music and the control group. Results also indicated that children who did not play a musical instrument made more impulsivity mistakes than children who played a musical instrument. Surprisingly, the children with the diagnosis AD(H)D did not differ from the other two groups. Correlation analyses revealed that children who scored high in the intelligence test also exhibited a better performance in the visual impulsivity computerized attention test, showing that reactive performance is related to some areas of attention. In addition, the months of playing a musical instrument correlated negatively with the number of visual and auditory impulsivity mistakes, thus showing that this aspect depends on the amount of musical practice. The results of the present study allow the conclusion that actively playing a musical instrument has a positive influence on attention. Moreover, they suggest that children with AD(H)D have specific skills in creative expression.