This diploma thesis deals with Jewish patronage, to be more precise, with modern Jewish patronage during the 19th and 20th century. At first, patronage in general is discussed, then the focus shifts to patronage of the arts by Jewish patrons. It will be shown why countless Jews were committed to supporting art and artists and what their reasons were. Thereafter, the development of the Jewish community in Hamburg during the 19th and 20th century will be described. This description is used as a historical framework to embed Rosa Schapire, who lived at that time, in the historical context because then the focus shifts to her. Rosa Schapire was a Jewish art historian and art collector. It will be demonstrated how she supported the German Expressionism and especially the German artist Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. In conclusion, it will be discussed whether Rosa Schapire could be received as a modern patron of the arts.