In the field of sustainable energies, enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis is a central topic for the production of second generation biofuels. Intensively investigated for more than 4 decades, the mechanisms of enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis are widely understood from an empirical point of view, whereas morphological and structural investigations, which would provide an important insight in their dynamics and limitations, are widely lacking. One approach is time resolved atomic force microscopy (AFM) which basically provides the spatial resolution required for a direct characterization of cellulose degradation process. However, the visualization of individual enzymes (cellulase complexes) and their hydrolyzing effect on cellulose demands homogenously smooth and nano-flat specimen surfaces even after exposure to the enzyme carrying buffer solution. In this diploma thesis we present a strategy for the fabrication of cellulose substrates, fulfilling the demands on roughness from the micro to the nanoscale with a reproducible character, revealing a final root mean square (RMS) surface roughness of less than 10 nm. The preparation strategy developed enabled the observation of enzymatic surface degradation and revealed the capability of visualizing individual single cellulases. The detailed analysis of AFM data revealed the temporal evolution of surface fissuring as a complex interplay between external (surface erosion) and internal (surface penetration/crack formation) enzymatic activity. The mesoscopic view presented within this thesis allows for the proposal of a model for the enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis consistent with previous mechanistic models in literature. The fabrication of ultraflat cellulose surfaces for dynamic investigations of enzymatic degradation with nm-resolution, as the main achievement of this thesis, provides high potential for further optimization of saccharification processes. This could be of crucial importance in this promising scientific field.