This master thesis pursues the question, how far a 'counter-culture' in its manifestation as guitar-dominated popular music could at all develop in a closed system of the communist Poland, and which mechanisms were involved in its emergence as well as development.The term 'counter-culture' cannot be understood in its literal sense, since a full formation of a counter-movement never occured. Art, specifically music, stands in continual dependency and interaction with the socialist, controlling authority. Guitar-dominated popular music, which includes rock 'n' roll, beat, rock, punk and metal, develops simultaneously to the course of history of communism in the Republic of Poland, which is depicted in a chronological overview. Thereby parallels between the politic liberalization processes or tightening processes (state of war) and music become apparent.Initiated controlling state entities are meant to maintain the cultural monopoly and to completely shut out musical influences from the West, or allow them in a censored context. To what extent western culture in Poland could spread in a legal or illegal way, and how this eventually effected guitar-dominated popular music as a counter-culture, is being investigated in this paper. Subsequently, all theoretical approaches are being applied to the practical level of the bands active in the guitar-dominated scene within the communist system, with special focus on metal music.