The Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina is founded on an eventful history, especially on the dynamics of constant migrations and the various systems of the regimes and their rule. The capital Sarajevo was always the focus of this development process. The former influences within the country can still, therefore, be seen both by the genetically evolved structures as well as in recent developments there.The work at hand describes the historical rise of this multiethnic city, and the accompanying epochal heritage, particularly as they are reflected in building-structure. This urban development of Sarajevo can be traced in relation to the defined direction of development, from east to west. The city's beginnings lie in the Ottoman crafts area, with its living quarters on the slopes. This old town area was then overlaid by the perimeter blocks built during the years of rapid industrial expansion. A significant urban growth took place, however, only during socialism. Accordingly this latest district to the west is build up of housing estates as well as a commercial and an industrial zone from this era. More recently, modern buildings were also individually inserted into the urban architecture, such that Sarajevo?s building structure displays great homogeneity.The discussed events of past development phases, especially the last civil war in the Balkans are, in addition to the physiognomic description of the town, also dealt with in the analysis of recent conditions. In the course of these considerations, special attention is given to the population composition, the functional scope of duties as well as the current status of Sarajevo as its capital. It is clear that, because of the last battle, a series of negative consequences occurred that are clearly visible today. These effects appear in the form of poor economic conditions, tendencies of segregation of the various peoples and disrupted political activity.