The Chinese herbal decoction Huang Lian Jie Du Tang is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to clear away heat and relieve toxicity. In western medicine it is used to treat inflammatory diseases of the gastro intestinal tract, skin diseases and psychic disorders. The decoction mixture consists of varying portions of the four single herbs Radix Scutellariae, Fructus Gardeniae, Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex Phellodendri.During this PhD Thesis, the phytochemical profile of the decoction mixture, as well as its pharmacological effects concerning anti-inflammatory activities were examined. Decoctions of the single herb components as well as of the mixture were prepared and extracted via liquid-liquid extraction with n-heptane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The so gained extracts and the respective water residues were analysed using thin layer chromatography, HPLC-DAD and LC-MS. Interpretation and cluster analysis of the gained data led to the characterisation of the phytochemical profile of Huang Lian Jie Du Tang. The results will further on contribute to quality control of the decoction mixture.The extracts, which were gained via liquid-liquid extraction, as well as the respective water residues were also evaluated concerning their anti-inflammatory activity against COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme activity, LTB4 formation and NO production in vitro. Anti-inflammatory activity of the decoction mixture, caused by constituents such as baicalein, derived from the single drugs, could be confirmed. Additionally, the extracts were analysed using an XTT assay in CCRF-CEM leukaemia cells and MRC-5 lung fibroblasts. Analysis showed that the investigated samples only slightly influenced cell viability and proliferation and therefore, do not posses anti-cancer or cytotoxic activities in these cell lines. Additionally the findings of the XTT assays state that the anti-inflammatory activities could not be due to cytotoxicity.