The Bavarian Hiesel in the Puppet Theatre around 1900. Edition and Study.Belona BerchtalerWithin the context of the edition of the traditional Hiesel puppet plays this master thesis tries to answer the question, how Matthäus Klostermair alias ?Bavarian Hiesel? (1736-1771), who has been executed because of his criminal activities, became a historical and theatrical myth, why and how this happened.Employing these methods four reasons for the strong imprint the ?Prince of the Forests? left an folk literature of the late 18th, 19th and beginning of the 20th century are identified: (1) the growing interest in the criminal, (2) the notion of poaching as a harmless crime, (3) the bourgeoisian desire for adventures, nature and force and (4) the motive of the rueful sinner. The investigation of the available puppet plays lead to the discovery that Hiesel cannot be identified as a social rebel. Instead he gained the Habitus of a fair robber. Two motives were found, which explain this process: (1) Bourgeoisian virtue and (2) Hiesel as penitent. Hiesel can only become a deterrent example, if he offers identification potential. He does so, by, on the one hand, finally behaving as rueful sinner and, on the on the other hand, by acting according to bourgeoisian virtue.