In this diploma thesis the question was addressed whether the perception of unambiguous and ambiguous auditory stimuli differs between musically highly trained and musically untrained subjects. 30 subjects were tested in each group. Test stimuli were pure tones and harmonic complex tones with or without a fundamental frequency. Tone duration was varied systematically. The results showed that only musicians were able to accurately assess very short sine tones, while non-musicians tended to guess. When presented with ambiguous harmonic sounds, musicians focused more strongly on the (presented or not presented) fundamental frequencies than on the overtones, provided that these sounds had a sufficient duration. In non-musicians this behavior was less pronounced. Their scores typically lay in the intermediate region and not in the extreme areas, which would have signified the predominance of a certain listening mode (fundamental pitch or overtone listening). For very short stimuli, overtone listening was predominant, at least if the fundamental frequencies were missing. This effect was stronger in musicians than in non-musicians. For the unambiguous stimuli (pure tones), even extremely short tones were assessed reliably by musicians, while non-musicians seemed to guess. No association was found between handedness and listening mode.