ABSTRACTAttention is the basis for any practical and intellectual activity. Accordingly, attention deficits lead to restrictions in all areas of life. Based on the assumption that attention disorders are underlying neuronal dysfunction many researchers performed neurofeedback (NF) studies on children with attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (AD(H)D). Studies in healthy adults are known on which the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) with neurofeedback training (NFT) was trained and the effect was examined on their attention (Egner et al., 2001, 2004; Vernon et al., 2003). There is a lack of studies concerning healthy children so far. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate whether healthy children are able to control their SMR of their own volition and, furthermore, if an impact on their selective attention can be observed. To verify this question a total of 30 healthy children (10 - 12 years) were divided into three groups. In order to capture the specificity of the NFT, ten children received a NFT (12 Hz - 18 Hz) and ten more children a computerized attention training (AT) consisting of 15 training sessions. The third group of also ten children received no training and served as a control group (CG). To capture the attention, on the one hand, the d2-Aufmerksamkeits-Belastungs Test and, on the other hand, the Go/Nogo subtest which is part of the Testbatterie zur Aufmerksamkeitsprüfung (TAP) were used. Analysis of behavioural data contained the records of 24 and analysis of EEG data the records of six subjects. Based on calculations of the Event-Related Synchronization/Desynchronization (ERS/ERD) a deliberate control of the SMR was detected. Moreover, just the NFT-group showed a reduction in response time variability (RTV), measured with TAP. In summary, it can be stated that, despite the small number of study subjects, a small contribution to research on control of the SMR in healthy children and the effect on their attention succeded.