The following master thesis presents a historical-comparative analysis to explain why a number of national movements of non-dominant ethnic groups in 19th-century Europe succeeded in nationally mobilizing large parts of the population, while others failed. Using Miroslav HROCHs A-B-C schema as theoretical framework, 14 cases from North-East, Central and Southeast Europe have been selected and characterized via synthetic case descriptions based on secondary historical literature. Six causal conditions (literacy, primary schooling, network of national pub-lications and associations, abolition of serfdom, politics of assimilation and support by the nobil-ity and/or clergy) have been selected to explain the difference in the outcome. That information was transformed into numerical values and analyzed with Crisp-Set QCA and Multi-Value QCA. While the formal comparison showed that abolition of serfdom did not play a role, the existence of a network of national publications and associations turned out to be a necessary condition for successful national mass mobilization. The combinations of the mentioned network and a high literacy rate or support are sufficient for national mobilization. Therefore the last two conditions can be seen as functional equivalents. Non-existent support of the nobility and/or the clergy turned out to be a necessary condition for failure, while combinations with non-high literacy rates or lasting politics of cultural assimilation are either sufficient for the failure to spread na-tional consciousness. Less pervasive forms of politics of cultural assimilation however, e.g. in the Finnish, Ruthenic or Romanian case, together with an existing network of national publications and associations and high literacy rates or support are on the other hand, beneficial for national mass mobilization.