For millennia, nutrition has been a crucial part of human health. The aim of this thesis is to provide a satisfactory overview of selected micronutrients, which have a beneficial effect on human organism. At the beginning of the thesis, I am going to deal with the basic principles of nutrition. In this case, the main focus is on the history, dietary diseases, deficiencies and nutritional supplements. I will also deal with orthomolecular medicine, which deals with the recovery of diseases, by an increased supply of nutrients. The main part of the work deals with selected nutrients. I attach great importance to function, needs, deficiencies and overdosing. At the end of the thesis, health-promoting dietary formulas are discussed in certain life stages. In particular, nutrition is discussed about pregnancy, breastfeeding, infants and seniors. These sections of life have been chosen, because nutrient losses as well as nutrient deficiencies can occur more frequently.