African history does not begin from the period of colonization, but many years before the colonial period. In Africa, countries had their own administration of the king to the smallest famers. That is, from the king to the peasant farmers. After the African continent was discovered by Europeans, the explorers have begun with negotiations that lasted until colonization. The colonial powers changed the political, economic and social systems of the colonized countries. These changes led in some countries to negative consequences as tensions and wars . In my work I will write about the arrival of Europeans in the East African region, and a large part will focus on the country Rwanda. I will explore how was the political and social situation in Rwanda a few years before the arrival of colonial powers (Germany and Belgium in 1886, 1916) the serious research about the political and social inequality in Rwanda before the arrival of colonial powers, the unrest between the three Rwandan ethnic groups which led to the social revolution and the total abolition of the monarchy in 1962 and the introduction of democracy under the first President Gregoire Kayibanda. To achieve the goal of my work, comprehensive literature review on the Rwandan monarchy and the colonial period is necessary.